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Animal Traditions: Behavioural Inheritance in Evolution

Eytan Avital, Eva Jablonka

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I left his office dazed, with more ideas than I could get a handle on buzzing in my head. Biederman (1987) agreed with Marr and Nishihara (1978) that the concave parts of an object’s contour are of particular value in accomplishing the task of segmenting the visual image into parts. The two main concepts in cognitive development is maturation and learning. FIGURE 8.4 Memory for the Challenger explosion as a function of whether the event upset the participants, the extent of rehearsal, and the retention interval.

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An Emergence Approach to Speech Acquisition: Doing and

Barbara L. Davis

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They studied a patient, MS, who had a right occipital lobe lesion. As Towse, Hitch, and Hutton (1999, p. 111) pointed out, there are concerns about relying on reading span, “a task requiring sentence comprehension, as the vehicle to explain sentence-comprehension processes.” Finally, the theory emphasises working memory capacity rather than the specific processes involved in comprehension. Access of semantic memory ranges from slightly to extremely effortful, depending on a number of variables including but not limited to recency of encoding of the information, number of associations it has to other information, frequency of access, and levels of meaning (how deeply it was processed when it was encoded). [13] Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events that can be explicitly stated.

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Local Memories in a Nationalizing and Globalizing World

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However, all of these assumptions are either highly questionable or have not been supported by the evidence found. • The prototype view characterises concepts as being organised around prototypes, expressed as a central tendency in the attributes of members of the category. Since 1970, more than sixty universities in North America and Europe have established cognitive psychology programs. As you can see, the field of cognitive psychology is both broad and diverse, yet it touches on so many aspects of daily life.

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Personality and Learning Theory, Vol. 2: A Systems Theory of

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The article gave examples of results that differ significantly between WEIRD subjects and tribal cultures, including the Müller-Lyer illusion. Kotovsky and Simon developed a digitised version of this puzzle, involving the moving of five balls out of boxes. We will focus on computational models in this section, because they are the hallmark of the cognitive science approach. For example, storing semantic information is essentially irrelevant when the memory test requires the identification of words rhyming with list words.

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Cognitive Behaviour Therapy with Older People

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Blindsight patients may use this pathway even if V1 is totally destroyed. Clearly, some skills, like reading, transfer from one context to another. The evidence generally supports the prediction that recognition memory for atypical actions is better than for typical ones at all retention intervals (Davidson, 1994). Previously, in the premoral stage, toddlers had no obligation to follow rules. It seems that any part of the memory can reinstate all of the original memory. Chomsky also noted that language is generative not obtained through the environment as behaviorists claimed (Willingham).

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Knowledge and the Flow of Information (The David Hume

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A. tends to be a good fit for students who are interested in the breadth that psychology has to offer, including the applications of this science to multiple disciplines and career paths. Confirmation bias appears to be quite prevalent. Ch 6 Long Term Memory: Encoding to retrieval 2 Encoding, 2.1 Levels of processing, ‘Multi-store’or‘Modal’ memory model., Atkinson and Shiffrin’s (1968), Depth of Processing, Craik and Lockhart (1972), Type I Processing, Type II Processing, 2.2 Relational and item-specific processing, Relational processing (Elaboration), Item-specific processing (Integration), 2.2.1 Encoding processing and Mandler’s (1980) dual-process model of recognition, Dual-process model of recognition, Mandler (1980) 3 Memory stores and systems, 3.1 Multiple memory systems, Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, Collins and Quillian (1969), 3.2 Declarative and procedural memory, Declarative knowledge, Procedural knowledge 4 Retrival, 4.1 Encoding specificity and transfer appropriate processing, Encoding specificity, Tulving and Osler (1968), Transfer appropriate processing (TAP), Morris et al. (1977) 5 Implicit memory, 5.1 Perceptual and conceptual implicit memory, Conceptual implicit tests, 5.2 Accounts of implicit memory, 5.2.1 TAP account, 5.2.2 Memory systems accounts, Explicit memory tasks, Implicit memory task, Perceptual implicit memory tasks, 5.3 Implicit memory and amnesia 7 Remember and know judgements, 7.1 Do remember and know judgements reflect different response criteria? 1 What are autobiographical memories? 2 Autobiograpical memory across the lifespan, Working Self, Conway and Pleydell-Pearce (2000), Lifespan retrieval curve, 2.1 Childhood amnesia, 2.2 The reminiscence bump, Self-defining experiences, Conway (1996), 2.3 Recency 3 Autobiogrphical knowledge, episodic memory, the working self and memory construction, 3.1 Autobiographical knowledge, 3.1.1 General events, 3.1.2 Lifetime periods, Goal attainment, Life story, Schema, Partonomic knowledge structures, 3.2 Episodic and semantic memory, 3.2.1 Recollective experience, 3.3 The working self, Retrieval mode, 3.3.1 Goals and the working self, Self-defining memories, Singer and Salovey (1993), 3.4 Constructing autobiographical memories, Generative retrieval, Direct retrieval 4 Autobiographical memory in distress, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), 4.1 Traumatic event, 4.2 Response at the time of trauma, 4.3 Subsequent psychological symptoms, 4.3.1 Re-experiencing symptoms including intrusive memories, 4.3.2 Avoidance symptoms, 4.3.3 Amnesia as avoidance, 4.3.4 Hyperarousal symptoms, 4.4 Impact of symptoms, 4.5 The nature of intrusive trauma memories 5 What are autobiographical memories for? 2 Word recognition, 2.1 Spoken word recognition, 2.1.1 Segmenting the speech stream, Phonemes, Coarticulated, Segmentation, Pre-lexical, Lexical, Metrical foot, Wordspotting, Cutler and Norris (1988), Phonological representation, Implicit learning, 2.1.2 Parallel activation, Word-initial cohort, Uniqueness point, Cross-modal priming, 2.1.3 Lexical competition, Activation level, TRACE model, McClelland and Elman (1986), Phonetic feature, Bottom-up support, 2.2 Visual word recognition, 2.2.1 Models of visual word recognition, IAC (interactive activation and competition) model, McClelland and Rumelhart (1981), Lexical effects, 2.2.2 Mappings between spelling and sound, Orthography, Phonology, Assembled phonology, Addressed phonology, Pseudohomophones, Low-frequency words, DRC model, Coltheart et al, Neighbouring words, Homophones, 2.2.3 Eye movements in reading, Saccades, Fixations, Function words, Content words, Optimal viewing position (OVP), Foveal, Parafoveal 3 The mental lexicon, Semantic content, Semantic organization, 3.1 Morphology, Morphemes, Inflectional change, Inflectional morphology, Derivational morphology, Full-listing approach, Decompositional approach, Taft and Forster's (1975), 3.2 Accessing word meanings, Spreading activation models, Spreading activation models, Collins and Loftus (1975), Featural theory, Associated words, Association strength, 3.2.2 Semantic ambiguity, Syntactic ambiguity, Autonomous view of semantic ambiguity, Interactive view of semantic ambiguity 4 Sentence comprehension, 4.1 Syntax, Phrase structure, Thematic role assignment, 4.2 Models of parsing, Garden path model, Frazier (1979), Constraint-based model, MacDonald et al. (1994), 4.3 Is parsing autonomous?, 4.4 Constraints on parsing TMA06 Option 2 What are the difficulties encountered by psychologists in studying conciousness?

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Handbook of Clinical Child Neuropsychology

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In part, it uses the notion of encoding specificity to develop a detailed mathematical model. Another illustration of the possible pitfalls involved in relying too heavily on expectations or hypotheses comes in a classic study by Bruner, Postman, and Rodrigues (1951). For example, if you wanted to sell off your unwanted possessions you might construct a category of “things to sell at a garage sale”. The defining-attribute view is based on ideas developed in philosophy and logic. Multimedia content includes original SAGE videos that appeal to students with different learning styles.

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Behaviour and Social Organisation (Cambridge Social Biology

Michael Reiss

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Representation (of objects and events) and processes that operate on these representations underlie information processing and information processing typically occurs within largely isolated modules, which are organized in stages of processing. Please check back or contact royalhollowayinternational rhul.ac.uk / Tel: +44 (0)1784 276629 for further information. This issue was illustrated by Howard (1997, p. 298) in the following hypothetical (but plausible) example: “If, for instance, some 50% of subjects recognise words in Wernicke’s area…and show increased rCBF [regional cerebral blood flow] there in a task, while the other 50% show no change, over the whole group there will probably be a significant increase.” How serious are the problems associated with averaging neuroimaging data?

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Psychological Treatment of Panic (Treatment Manuals for

David H. Barlow

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Please check back or contact royalhollowayinternational rhul.ac.uk / Tel: +44 (0)1784 276629 for further information. For example, if you see someone walking towards you, their retinal image increases progressively, but their size seems to remain the same. See full story here >> that made it to The New York Times Lens Blog. Participants listening to the first sentence heard “wheel”, those listening to the second sentence heard “heel”, and those exposed to the third and fourth sentences heard “meal” and “peel”, respectively.

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Designing for Science: Implications From Everyday,

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For instance, other research has shown that the definition of the image towards the “face” of the figure is better than at the “back” of the figure (see Brandimonte & Gerbino, 1993; Chambers & Reisberg, 1992; Peterson, Kihlstrom, Rose, & Glinsky, 1992). Such interference has been found on a regular basis. FIGURE 14.14 A schematic diagram of the sortings of physics problems by a novice and expert, adapted from Chi, Glaser, and Rees (1983). It was his belief that language was generative (Willingham, 2007).

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